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Friday, July 31, 2020

Free and Open Source PCB Design Software with 3D View for Windows, macOS, Linux- KiCAD

About KiCAD

    KiCAD is a cross-platform Free Open Source PCB design software that allows you to Create Schematic, PCB Layouts & also allows you to view the PCB layout in 3D models. You can download KiCAD by clicking here.

System Requirements
  • Supported OS: Windows, macOS, Ubuntu, Debian, Arch Linux, Fedora, openSUSE, Linux Mint, FlatPak, Gentoo, Sabyon, FreeBSD. (For more details on the versions please click here)
  • Processor: Intel 32 & 64 bit, PowerPC 32 & 64 bit, ARM 32 & 64 bit, MIPS 64bit
  • Graphics: Cards with OpenGL 2.1 or greater 
  • RAM: > 1 GB
  • Hard Disk Space: > 10 GB
  • Screen Resolution: > 1280*1024

Features
    
    Schematic Editor: With the schematic editor, you can create any design possible with the built-in schematic symbol or you can create your own if it is not available in the built-in library.


    Bill of Materials: You can download the BOM using third party plugins
    
    PCB Layout Editor: You can easily create the PCB Layout from the schematic diagram which you have created using the schematic editor. KiCAD also supports up to 32 copper layers
    3D Viewer: helps you to view your design in 3D

    Export Support: KiCAD various export formats like Gerber, Postscript, SVG, DXF, HPGL, and PDF. You can also print in black & white or colors using the built-in print function.

Drawbacks:
  • There is no One-Click Auto Routing Function
  • There is no One-Click simulation like other premium software 
Conclusion: If you are a beginner then this is one of the best free open source software for you for creating schematics and professional-grade PCB layouts

Tutorials:
    Website: Learn KiCAD

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Tuesday, July 28, 2020

How to make analog adjustable timer using 555 IC

In this project, I will show you how to make an analog timer using 555 Timer IC.

If you prefer video mode or like to watch the working of the circuit please click here to watch it on YouTube.

Parts List
  • 1 * 555 Timer
  • 1 * 100uF/25V Electrolytic Capacitor
  • 1 * 0.01uF Ceramic Capacitor
  • 1 * Push Button
  • 1 * 200, 330, 10K, 2.2M Ohm Resistors
  • 1 * Green and Red Led
  • 1 * Potentiometer
Theory

    For this project, the main components are 555 Timer. The 555 IC is a timer integrated circuit and can be operated in Astable or Monostable mode. For this project, I am using the monostable mode.

Circuit Diagram


How It Works?

    When you supply power to the circuit the timer starts running and the Green LED will be lit and once the timer runs down the Red Led will be lit.

The duration of the timer can be adjusted using the RV1 potentiometer.

The reset button is used to reset the timer after it has rundown down the time.

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How to make a 20 Watt Bridge Amplifier using TDA2005R

In this post, I will show you how to make a 20-watt bridge amplifier using TDA2005R

If you prefer video mode or like to watch the working of the circuit please click here to watch it on YouTube

Parts List
  • 1 * TDA2005R
  • 1 * 2.2uF/25V Electrolytic Capacitor
  • 1 * 10uF/25V Electrolytic Capacitor
  • 2 * 220uF/25V Electrolytic Capacitor
  • 1 * 1000uF/25V Electrolytic Capacitor
  • 4 * 0.1uF Ceramic Capacitor
  • 2 * 1 Ohm and 10 Ohm Resistor
  • 1 * 1K Ohm Resistor
  • 1 * 1.5K Ohm Resistor
Theory

    In this project, the main component is the TDA2005R which is a class B dual audio power amplifier in the Multiwatt11 package. TDA2005R can be configured for Bridge or Stereo applications.

TDA2005R can operate with a supply voltage ranging from 8 to 18 volts and has a closed-loop voltage gain of about 50dB.

For this project, I am using the Bridge configuration.

Note: When using a Multiwatt11 package always use a heat sink

Circuit Diagram

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How to make a mini Bridge Amplifier using TDA2822

In this post, I will show you how to make a mini Bridge Amplifier using TDA2822

If you prefer video mode or like to watch the working of the project please click here to watch it on YouTube

Parts List
  • 1 * TDA2822
  • 1 * 10k (Trimmer, Potentiometer or Logarithmic Potentiometer)
  • 3 * 10 Ohm Resistor
  • 3 * 0.1uF Ceramic Capacitor
  • 1 * 100uF/16V Electrolytic Capacitor
  • 1 * 10uF/50V Electrolytic Capacitor
Theory

    In this project, the main component is TDA2822 which is an integrated audio amplifier that can operate with a supply voltage ranging from 2 to 12 Volts.

    TDA2822 can work in both Bridge & Stereo configuration. But for this project, I am using the Bridge configuration. TDA2822 also has a closed-loop voltage gain of about 40 dB for both Bridge & Stereo configuration.

In the circuit, the RV1 pot can be used to control the volume.

Circuit Diagram


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How to make a Remote Tester using TSOP1738

In this post, I will show you how to make a simple remote tester using TSOP1738

    If you prefer video mode or like to watch the working of the circuit please click here it to watch it on YouTube

Parts List
  • 1 * TSOP1738
  • 1 * 10 and 4.7k Resistor
  • 1 * Red LED
Theory

    The main component of the project is TSOP1738 which is a low power infrared receiver that operates at a 38kHz frequency and can be used to control remote systems and can work with a supply voltage up to 6V

Circuit Diagram


How It Works?

    After constructing the circuit just face the remote towards the circuit and press the button you want to test. After pressing the button if the LED blinks then your remote button is working.


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Monday, July 27, 2020

How to make a simple Amplifier using LM386 with volume control

In this post, I will show you how to make a very simple amplifier using LM386 with Volume control.

If you prefer video mode or like to watch the working of the project please click here to watch it on YouTube

Parts List
  • LM386
  • 37 Ohm Resistor
  • 220uF/25V Electrolytic Capacitor
  • 0.1uF Ceramic Capacitor
  • 10k Trimmer or Potentiometer or Logarithmic Potentiometer
Theory

    In this project, the main component is LM386 which is a low voltage power amplifier that can operate with a wide supply voltage range between 4 to 12 volts and LM386 can also have a voltage gain of about 200.

The RV1 (Trimmer or Potentiometer or Logarithmic Potentiometer) can be used to control the volume.

Circuit Diagram

    The voltage gain of the below circuit diagram is about 20 


Alternate Circuit Diagram - The voltage gain of the below circuit diagram is about 200
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How to make a Dual Voltage Power Supply using 7812 & 7912

In this post, I will show you how to make a Dual Voltage Power Supply using 7812 and 7912

If you prefer video mode or like to watch the working of the circuit please click here to watch it on YouTube

Parts List
  • 1 * Center Tap Transformer 240V to 15-0-15 volt 1A
  • 4 * 1N4001 Diode
  • 2 * 2200uF/25v Electrolytic Capacitor
  • 2 * 10uF/25v Electrolytic Capacitor
  • 1 * 3.3k Resistor
  • 1 * Red Led
  • 2 * Heat Sink
  • 1 * 7812
  • 1 * 7912
Theory

    For this Dual Power Supply project, I am using a center tap transformer so that we get two secondary voltages. The Two-wire side of the transformer is for the incoming AC power supply & the three-wire side of the transformer is the secondary voltage side.

    Important Note: For the desired voltage of +12 and -12V always use the transformer with secondary voltage rating of 15-0-15 Volts

    Note: The center pin or the wire of the secondary voltage side is the GND.

    The Four Diodes 1N4007 acts as the Bridge Rectifier which converts the AC voltage to the DC Voltage.

    The Capacitor C1 & C2 acts as the smoothing capacitor which smooths out any fluctuations in the signal.

    Next coming to the two main components 7812 and 7912 which are the two voltage regulators. The 7812 is the positive voltage regulator with current up to 1Amp and 7912 is the negative voltage regulator with current up to 1Amp.

Circuit Diagram



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How to make a variable bench power supply using LM317

In this tutorial, I will show you how to make a variable bench power supply using LM317.

If you prefer video mode or like to watch the working of the project please click here to watch it on YouTube.

For the circuit diagram and working of the circuit, please read my previous post by clicking here.

Note: You have to make a few changes to the circuit diagram. First, You have to use a 4.7K potentiometer instead of 5K Trimmer and the second one is to add a Voltmeter to the output along with all the input and output connectors as shown in the below block diagram. For better understanding please watch the video shared in the second paragraph.


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How to make a variable power supply using LM317 with short circuit protection

In this tutorial, I will show you how to make a variable power supply using LM317 with short circuit protection.

If you prefer video mode or like to watch the circuit working please click here to watch the video on YouTube

Parts List
  • 1 * LM317
  • 1 * 5K Trimmer
  • 2 * 1N4001
  • 1 * Heat Sink
  • 1 * 0.01uF Ceramic Capacitor
  • 1 * 10uF/25V or 10uF/25V Electrolytic Capacitor
  • 1 * 120 or 330 Ohm Resistor
Theory
    
    In this project, the main components are LM317 which is a monolithic integrated circuit intended for use as a positive adjustable voltage regulator. The LM317 is designed to supply more than 1.5A of load current & output voltage up to 1.2 to 37V range.

    The output voltage of the LM317 is dependent on the input voltage. For example, if you supply 40V which is the absolute maximum voltage which can be handled by LM317, the output voltage you will receive is up to 37 Volts.

    Note: LM317 should be connected to the heat sink because it generates a lot of heat while connected to a load

The two diodes 1N4001 is used to protect the Lm317 from any short circuit
  • Diode D1 protects from any internal short circuits
  • Diode D2 protects from any external short circuits
The 5K trimmer can be used to adjust the output voltage.

If your input voltage is less than 25V then use the electrolytic capacitor 10uF/25V and if your voltage is above 25V then use 10uF/50V.

Circuit Diagram



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Thursday, July 23, 2020

LED Chaser or Sequencer Using 555 & 4017 | Running LED

In this tutorial, I will show you how to make a simple LED Chaser or Sequencer using a 555 & 4017 circuits. 

If you prefer watching video mode or want to see the circuit working please click here to watch it on YouTube

Parts List
  • 1 * 555 Timer
  • 1 * 4017 Decade Counter
  • 5 * Blue LED
  • 5 * Green LED
  • 2 * 1.5k Ohm Resistor
  • 1 * 0.01uF Ceramic Capacitor
  • 1 * 4.7uF/50V Electrolytic Capacitor
  • 1 * 10k Potentiometer
Theory

    For this project, the main components are 555 Timer & 4017 Decade Counter. The 555 IC is a timer integrated circuit and can be operated in Astable or Monostable mode. The 4017 Decade counter is a 5-stage divide by 10 Johnson counter with 10 decoded outputs and a carry-out bit.

    In this project, The function of the 555 Timer is used to produce the stable clock pulse for the 4017 and it is constructed in Astable Mode.

    When the clock pulse produced by the 555 Timer is fed to the 4017, it starts counting in the upward direction for each pulse. Now when you connect the LEDs to the outputs you get the sequential glow.

    The duration of the glow of LEDs can also be altered by changing the value of the potentiometer (RV1) & the value of C2 Capacitor.or only by changing the value of the potentiometer (RV1).

Circuit Diagram



Side Note

In the circuit diagram, I showed the circuit which counts up to the value 10. You can change the value of count by simply connecting the last sequence to the reset pin. For example

  • Let say you want the connect only 6 LEDs
  • In that case, you only need to connect the LED from Q0 to Q5 & the Q6 to the Reset Pin15.
  • Remaining pins from Q7 to Q9 will be No Connection.

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How to get FREE and Unlimited VPN with just 4 steps

In this post, I will share how to get Free & Unlimited VPN with just 4 steps.

Step 1: First, download and install the web browser Opera.

Step 2: After installing the browser open it and click on Easy Setup

Step 3: Next click on Enable in Settings which is beside VPN


Step 4: In the settings page scroll down to VPN and Enable the VPN

After enabling the VPN you should get the VPN symbol near the search bar.

    Warning: This is my personal opinion. I don't recommend using a VPN service when dealing with confidential information. Always try avoiding as much as possible. 


Note: This post is only for information. Please use this at your own risk.

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How to make a Music Reactive or Dancing LED strip lights using LM324

In this post, I will show you how to make music reactive or dancing LED strip lights using LM324

If you prefer video mode or want to see the circuit working please click here to watch it on YouTube

Parts Required
  • 1 * LM324
  • 1 * BD139 NPN Transistor
  • 2 * 1N4007
  • 2 * 5.7k Ohm
  • 2 * 10k Ohm
  • 2 * 90k Ohm
  • 1 * 5k Pot
  • 1* 120 Ohm
  • 1 * 2-way switch
  • 1 * LED Strip light
  • 1 * 12v LED Driver adapter or 12V power Supply
  • 2 * 3.5mm Female Audio Jack
Theory

    This project is based on the IC LM324 which is a Low Power Quad Op-Amp IC. LM324 consists of four independent high-gain, internally compensated operational amplifier designed to operate using a single power supply. LM324 generally operates between 3 to 30 Vdc.

In this project, we will be only using two op-amps out of the four.

The function of the BD139 NPN Transistor is to drive the LED strip. I recommend adding a heat sink to BD139 to protect it from overheating.

While choosing the driving transistor, make sure that your current requirement is met. In case your requirement is above 1.5A then I don't recommend using BD139. If your requirement is above 1.5A I recommend using MOSFET with a higher current rating.

The two-way switch is used to control the LED Strip Modes. 1. Light Mode: This is a normal mode that is directly connected to the GND and 2. Audio Mode: In this mode, the LED Strip light reacts according to the music.

Circuit Diagram

With Brightness Control - To control the brightness you can use the potentiometer

Without Brightness Control - The potentiometer has been removed in this circuit


Circuit Diagram using Fritzing - With brightness control. 
    Note: The Red LED in the circuit indicates the LED Strip

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Tuesday, July 21, 2020

How to make a Siren Generator (Ambulance, Police, Fire Engine & Gun Shots)

    In this post, I will show you how to make Siren generator for generating sounds of Police Siren, Ambulance, Fire Engine & Machine Guns Shots

If you prefer video mode please click here to watch it on YouTube

Parts Required
  • 1 * UM3561 IC
  • 1 * 2N2222 NPN BJT Transistor
  • 1 * 47uF Electrolytic Capacitor
  • 1 * 10K Ohm & 220K Ohm Resistor
  • 1 * 2 Way & 3 Way Switch
  • 1 * Small Speaker
Theory

    This project is based on the IC UM3561 which is a low power CMOS LSI. The UM3561 are usually found in Toys and they are also used in some of the alarm applications. The UM3561 generally operates between 2.5 to 3.5 Volts and can generate 4 different sirens (Ambulance, Police, Fire Engine & Gun Shots) based on the selection of the switch combination.

    The 2N2222 NPN BJT Transistor is used to drive the speaker and the two switches are used to select the siren output.

Circuit Diagram

    The circuit diagram for all the siren remains the same only thing changing is the switch position
    
    Ambulance - SW1 is open & SW2 is closed
    Fire Engine - SW1 is pointed at Pin 6 & SW2 is open
    Gun Shots - SW1 is pointed at Pin 1 & SW2 is open
    Police Siren - All the switches are open

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How to connect 16*2 LCD Display using only 4 wires & I2C module to Arduino UNO (Method 2) - Arduino Tutorials #15

In this post, I will show you how to connect the 16*2 LCD Display Module to an Arduino UNO using only 4 wires & I2C module.

If you don't have an I2C module you can click here to read how to connect 16*2 display module to Arduino UNO without using the I2C module. I don't recommend using this method since this uses 8 Arduino Pins. Where has using I2C module you use only 4 pins to connect the 16*2 display

If you prefer video mode you can click here to watch it on YouTube.

First, mount the I2C module to the Arduino UNO. While mounting make sure the 4 pins leading to Arduino UNO is facing outside like shown in the below image


Next, connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram
Next, connect the circuit to a Laptop or a Desktop and open the Arduino IDE


Next, install the library "LiquidCrystal I2C" by Frank de Brabander



Next upload the sketch "HelloWorld" which is under File > Examples > LiquidCrystal I2C to test the circuit. 

After uploading if you don't see any character displayed adjust the brightness using the trimmer of the I2C module until you get the display



Sketch

Sketch Start

#include <Wire.h>
#include <LiquidCrystal_I2C.h>

LiquidCrystal_I2C lcd(0x27,20,4);

void setup()
{
  lcd.init();
  lcd.backlight();
  lcd.setCursor(3,0);
  lcd.print("Hello, world!");
  lcd.setCursor(2,1);
  lcd.print("Ywrobot Arduino!");
}

void loop(){}
 
Sketch End

Sketch Explanation - Hello World

#include <Wire.h>Includes the library code for Wire which allows us to communicate with I2C devices
#include <LiquidCrystal_I2C.h> - Includes the library code for Liquid Crystal with I2C
LiquidCrystal_I2C lcd(0x27,20,4); -  Set the LCD address to 0x27 for a 16 chars (Columns) and 2 line display (Rows)
void setup() {} - Setup function runs when you power the board or press reset button. 
lcd.init(); - Initializes the lcd 
lcd.backlight(); - Turns On the Backlight
lcd.setCursor(3,0); - Sets the cursor to column 4, row 1 and then prints the next print statement 
lcd.print("Hello, world!"); - Prints Hello, world on the LCD Module
lcd.setCursor(2,1); - Sets the cursor to column 3, row 2 and then prints the next print statement 
lcd.print("Ywrobot Arduino!"); - Prints Ywrobot Arduino! on the LCD Module
void loop() {} - Loop function runs statements inside it over and over again forever

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How to connect 16*2 LCD Display Module to Arduino UNO (Method 1) - Arduino Tutorials #14

In this post, I will show you how to connect the 16*2 LCD Display Module to an Arduino UNO.

If you prefer video mode you can click here to watch it on YouTube.

First, connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram shared below


Next, connect the circuit to a Laptop or a Desktop and open your Arduino IDE


Next, install the library "LiquidCrystal" if it is not installed and upload the sketch "HelloWorld" which is under File > Examples > LiquidCrystal to test the circuit. 
    
After uploading if you don't see any character displayed adjust the brightness using the trimmer until you get the display



Sketch

Sketch Start

#include <LiquidCrystal.h>

const int rs = 12, en = 11, d4 = 5, d5 = 4, d6 = 3, d7 = 2;
LiquidCrystal lcd(rs, en, d4, d5, d6, d7);

void setup() {
  lcd.begin(16, 2);
  lcd.print("hello, world!");
}

void loop() {
  lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  lcd.print(millis() / 1000);
}

Sketch End

Sketch Explanation - Hello World

#include <LiquidCrystal.h> - Includes the library code for Liquid Crystal
const int rs = 12, en = 11, d4 = 5, d5 = 4, d6 = 3, d7 = 2; Assigning the Pin Numbers
LiquidCrystal lcd(rs, en, d4, d5, d6, d7); - Creates a variable of type Liquid Crystal & initializes the library by associating to LCD interface pins.
void setup() {} - Setup function runs when you power the board or press reset button. 
lcd.begin(16, 2); - Defining the LCD's Number of Columns (16) and rows(2)
lcd.print("hello, world!"); - Prints hello, world on the LCD Module
void loop() {} - Loop function runs statements inside it over and over again forever
lcd.setCursor(0, 1); - sets the cursor to column 1, row 2 and then prints the next print statement 
lcd.print(millis() / 1000); - prints the number of seconds since reset

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